Range: maximum 90 sec^-1
||Leskov, I. B., V. A. Klenchin, J. W. Handy, G. G. Whitlock, V. I. Govardovskii, M. D. Bownds, T. D. Lamb, E. N. Pugh, Jr., and V. Y. Arshavsky. 2000. The gain of rod phototransduction: reconciliation of biochemical and electrophysiological measurements. Neuron. 27: 525– 537 p.525 right column bottom paragraphPubMed ID11055435
||Dumke CL, Arshavsky VY, Calvert PD, Bownds MD, Pugh EN Jr. Rod outer segment structure influences the apparent kinetic parameters of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. J Gen Physiol. 1994 Jun103(6):1071-98. & Melia TJ Jr, Cowan CW, Angleson JK, Wensel TG. A comparison of the efficiency of G protein activation by ligand-free and light-activated forms of rhodopsin. Biophys J. 1997 Dec73(6):3182-91.PubMed ID7931138, 9414230
||"Measurements of ?E are found to average 80sec^-1 with a maximum of 90sec^-1 (Pugh and Lamb, 1993, Table IV, after correction for the revised ratio of 1 PDE to 270 rhodopsins in amphibian rods from Dumke et al., 1994 Melia et al., 1997).