||Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
||Joseph SB, Hall DW. Spontaneous mutations in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae: more beneficial than expected. Genetics. 2004 Dec168(4):1817-25 Table - link PubMed ID15611159
||Vassilieva LL, Lynch M. The rate of spontaneous mutation for life-history traits in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 1999 Jan151(1):119-29.PubMed ID9872953
||Spontaneous mutations were accumulated in 100 replicate lines of Caenorhabditis elegans over a period of approximately 50 generations. Periodic assays of these lines and comparison to a frozen control suggest that the deleterious mutation rate for typical life-history characters in this species is at least 0.05 per diploid genome per generation, with the average mutational effect on the order of 14% or less in the homozygous state and the average mutational heritability approximately 0.0034.
||The effect of mutations is measured in homozygotes