~2 - 5 %
||Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum
||Klein TM, Harper EC, Svab Z, Sanford JC, Fromm ME, Maliga P. Stable genetic transformation of intact Nicotiana cells by the particle bombardment process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Nov85(22):8502-8505 p.8505 right column top paragraphPubMed ID16593993
||Abstract: "[Investigators] show that the genetic transformation of Nicotiana tabacum can be achieved by bombarding intact cells and tissues with DNA-coated particles. Leaves or suspension culture cells were treated with tungsten microprojectiles carrying plasmid DNA containing a neomycin phosphotransferase gene."
||P.8505 left column bottom paragraph: "Previous studies that focused on the transient expression of foreign genes have permitted the optimization of parameters (such as those related to microprojectile momentum and dispersal) that influence DNA delivery by particle bombardment (refs 13-15). Obtaining relatively high levels of transient expression has proven essential for recovery of stable transformants since only a fraction of the cells that transiently express the foreign gene incorporate it. [Investigators’] data suggest that about 2-5% of the cells that transiently express a foreign gene stably integrate it."