||Mammalian tissue culture cell
||DeBerardinis RJ et al., Beyond aerobic glycolysis: transformed cells can engage in glutamine metabolism that exceeds the requirement for protein and nucleotide synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Dec 4 104(49):19345-50 p.19348 right column 2nd paragraphPubMed ID18032601
||Abstract: " Here, [investigators] used 13C NMR spectroscopy to examine the metabolism of glioblastoma cells exhibiting aerobic glycolysis."
||P.19348 right column 2nd paragraph: "The presence of fatty acid synthesis implied the need for two supporting pathways: a source of NADPH (the electron donor for fatty acid synthesis) and an anaplerotic mechanism to replenish TCA cycle intermediates during citrate export. Because glutamine metabolism can potentially fulfill both these needs (Fig. 4 A), [investigators] analyzed data from the two-stage perfusion to determine fluxes through relevant pathways (Fig. 4 B–E and Table 2). During stage 1, [3-13C]glutamate appeared rapidly and was the most abundant 13C metabolite produced (Fig. 4 C and D). Part of this pool was converted to [3-13C]α-KG and entered the TCA cycle, because soon after the appearance of [3-13C]glutamate, aspartate was labeled in C-2 and C-3. This resulted from conversion of [2-13C]OAA and [3-13C]OAA to [2-13C]aspartate and [3-13C]aspartate by aspartate aminotransferases. The intracellular [3-13C]aspartate concentration was ≈1 mM at steady state (Fig. 4 D)."